Producers of grey literature

Research institutions (Academy of Sciences, public research institutions, private research organisations)

These produce grey literature in the form of annual reports, bulletins and newsletters, information and promotional materials, outputs from grants and projects, etc. Although they try to publish most of their work, different types of grey literature are emerging (e.g. research reports, studies, analyses, statistics, etc.), which it is desirable to publish and archive for future use. These institutions also organize or, through their staff, participate in both Czech and international conferences, at which conference papers or books of proceedings are standard outputs and form, a type of grey literature balancing on the edge between published and unpublished literature.

Grant agencies

Their tasks are to provide targeted support for research projects and to collect the key and important type (from the professional point of view) of grey literature: project reports (partial, progress and final reports). Close cooperation between the Academy of Sciences and universities has been shown that reports from projects, which often contain valuable information, are a type of grey literature almost inaccessible to experts.


These are among the most important grey literature producers. University academic theses, i.e. bachelor, master, rigorous and habilitation theses, form the basic type of grey literature. Other types of grey literature such as annual reports, research reports, studies, analyses, and research and grant reports, are also produced at universities.

Libraries, museums and other memory institutions

These produce annual reports, studies, analyses, research and funding reports, presentations, proceedings, information and promotional materials about the institution, field or region, etc. They can provide other types of grey literature through their funds (e.g. the trade literature fund in the NTK).

State administration authorities, self-government and other public administration bodies

These create different types of grey literature in addition to legal regulations, decrees, decisions, budgets, etc. In particular, there are annual reports, status reports, statistics, yearbooks, analytical and evaluation results, surveys, etc. All these materials are currently available on the institutions’ websites but are not permanently stored anywhere.

Businesses, firms, business organisations and companies

In addition to annual reports, these publish a specific type of grey literature called trade literature, meaning documents informing the public about the products, services or activities of the organisation (e.g. catalogues of trade fairs and exhibitions, catalogues with production programs, company magazines, corporate jubilee publications, guides and manuals). Companies and corporations also focus on research and development, creating research and project reports, studies, analyses and strategic plans.

NUSL provides central access to information on grey literature produced in the Czech Republic in the fields of science, research and education.

Search in the NUSL database

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NUSL is operated by the National Library of Technology in Prague.